jeudi, février 15, 2018

Herman Dooyeweerd: Plato, Aristotle - State Absolutism and Sexual Communism

Herman Dooyeweerd: 
Plato, Aristotle - 
State Absolutism 
and Sexual Communism
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NOTE BY DOOYEWEERD REGARDING "GROUND-MOTIVES"

'The religious [ultimate] ground-motives in the development of Western civilization are basically the following:

1. The "form-matter" ground-motive of Greek antiquity in alliance with the Roman power motive (imperium).

2. The Scriptural ground-motive of the Christian religion: creation, fall, and redemption through Jesus Christ in communion with the Holy Spirit.

3. The Roman Catholic [Thomistic] ground-motive of "nature-grace", which seeks to combine the two mentioned above.

4. The modern humanistic ground motive of "nature-freedom", in which an attempt is made to bring the three previous motives to a religious synthesis concentrated upon the value of human personality.' 

(Herman Dooyeweerd, Roots of Western Culture: Pagan, Secular, and Christian Options, Paideia Press, 2012, p15) 
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Extract from ‘A New Study of Aristotle’s Concept of Justice’, from “TIME, LAW, and HISTORY: Selected Essays [by Herman Dooyeweerd]: Collected Works Series B – Vol 14, Paideia Press, 2017, pp 228-233. 

The article has been translated by D.F.M. Strauss into English from the original Dutch ‘Een Nieuwe studie over het Aristotelisch begrip der gerechtigheit’, Rechtsgeleerd Magazijn Themis 77 (1958). This essay is a critique of the book ‘Der Begriff der Gerechtigheit in der aristotelischen Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie’ [The concept of justice in the Aristotelian legal and political philosophy] by Peter Trude.


It is clear what the intention of our author [Peter Trude] is. Apparently, Christian philosophy is for him Thomist scholasticism. Thomas [Aquinas] accepted the Aristotelian views of ethics and the state as the natural substrate for the supernatural Christian ethics and church doctrine, and in his natural ethics he adopted the late-Aristotelian conception of general justice as justitia legalis

But once again it is a sign of lack of insight into the central significance of the religious ground-motives in Western philosophy when Trude foists upon Aristotle the typical scholastic distinction between “a natural and a supernatural” virtue, similarly to the way we saw him assume, in another context, that the Kantian distinction between “nature” and “freedom” is also found already in Aristotle. This merely shows to what extent the lack of a transcendental critique of Western thought, which reveals the diverse religious ground-motives as the ultimate hidden starting-points, leads the interpretation of Greek conceptions into scholarly aberrations. 

But in the thought of Trude this typical scholastic tendency toward accommodation, which itself starts from the synthesis motive of nature and grace, assumes a most questionable form when he attempts to show that the Bible already contains – in the apostle Paul, at Rom. 6:18 and Col. 3:14, and in Eccles. 12:13 – a conception of general justice and its connection with love that is related to the Aristotelian view. By ascribing to the biblical conception of love and justice, in their radical religious sense, an association with the Aristotelian conception of friendship and general justice, the biblical view is utterly denatured and in fact interpreted in terms of the Greek motive of form and matter.

When biblical conceptions are viewed in isolation from the radical ground-motive of creation, fall and redemption, one gets lost in a superficial play on words which completely eliminates the radical appeal of the Word-revelation to man’s heart, the root of human existence.

In contemporary theology, both in Protestantism and in the Roman Catholic nouvelle théologie, the insight that there is a deep gulf between the biblical thought-world of the Old and New Testaments and that of Greek philosophy is more and more gaining ground. Interpretations of Scripture in a Platonic or Aristotelian sense, as was done in the spirit of earlier scholasticism, are now emphatically rejected. But one cannot say that this kind of biblical exegesis is definitely a thing of the past – as is evident from the above criticism of Trude’s line of reasoning.

[…] But the claim that the Platonic idea of justice in its application to human society in the form of law would be capable of erecting a morally sound State is a statement that can hardly pass the test of criticism. Does the author really consider the Platonic design of the ideal State that is fully oriented to the idea of justice in a moral sense a wholesome design for the State?

The unbridled State absolutism evident in state-regulated sexual communism for the two highest political estates, the elimination of private property and of a private marital and family life for these estates, the assignment to the State of children born from their sexual relationships, including a detailed system of education regulating the life of these children, and the total stripping of all political rights from the lower third estate of peasants and partisans – do they indeed, according to Trude, meet the requirement of a morally sound order for the State?

Yet all this derives from the hierarchical value-ordering entailed in the Platonic theory of justice. Aristotle undoubtedly rejected these communistic ideas of Plato, while Plato himself, in his later dialogue on the Laws, abandoned these ideas since they did not fit empirical human nature with its imperfections. 

But that Plato’s subsequent project of the “State with Laws” as well as Aristotle’s own project for the best form of government essentially does not, on principle, know a single limitation of the jural power of the polis is immediately clear once attention is paid to these two views. That Trude does not realize that here we find the original defect in the Platonic and Aristotelian concept of justice is amply seen from the praise contained in his statement quoted above.

[…] Aristotle views the State as the perfect community in which all other communities can have the role of service components only – all parts of lower value. The classical Greek view of the different societal spheres does not look at their inner nature, their internal structural principle that is anchored in the divine order of creation, but at the goal they serve, as defined by Greek thought. Therefore their mutual relations are conceived in terms of the means-end scheme in which a value hierarchy is assumed that clashes fundamentally with the creation order. Hence it fails to acknowledge any limits to the competence of the State, grounded in the inner nature and structural principles of the spheres of society. 

Thomas’s acceptance of the Aristotelian view of the State as the “perfect community” therefore entailed a fundamental denaturing of the biblical ground-motive of creation, fall and redemption, even though he naturally attempted, in line with scholasticism, to accommodate the Greek form-matter motive to the biblical idea of creation.

[…] A strange impression is also left by the application of the Aristotelian conception of general justice to the trials of war criminals since 1945. If, so Trude argues, a person for the sake of the state community obeyed laws promulgated with an evil or criminal purpose, under the mistaken but exculpatory supposition that they were good, then such a person not only did not commit a crime but even acted in a virtuous way insofar as he practised general justice. He remarks:
“Consequently, this distinction flowing from the Aristotelian concept of general justice is throughout justified and fruitful and is of notable significance and great topical interest for reversing the values that state-forms and state-laws aim toward [?FMF], particularly also for the ethical and jural treatment of the post-war trials regarding the problems that emerged, for example, in connection with the wartime behaviour of soldiers between 1939 and 1945.”
This is a highly questionable line of reasoning. It could excuse multiple war crimes and even make them praiseworthy insofar as they were committed by convinced national socialist soldiers for whom the command of the Führer after all was always good and unassailable and in accordance with the well-being of the Third Reich! That views like these are still [c1958] defended in all seriousness at a German university is undoubtedly remarkable and does not contribute to our peace of mind.

Extract from ‘A New Study of Aristotle’s Concept of Justice’, from “TIME, LAW, and HISTORY: Selected Essays [by Herman Dooyeweerd]: Collected Works Series B – Vol 14, Paideia Press, 2017, pp 228-233. 

The article has been translated by D.F.M. Strauss into English from the original Dutch ‘Een Nieuwe studie over het Aristotelisch begrip der gerechtigheit’Rechtsgeleerd Magazijn Themis 77 (1958). This essay is a critique of the book ‘Der Begriff der Gerechtigheit in der aristotelischen Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie’ [The concept of justice in the Aristotelian legal and political philosophy] by Peter Trude.

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See also -

lundi, février 12, 2018

Nicolas Sarkozy - Livres & Vous (Public Sénat 09/02/2018)


Public Sénat | Ajoutée le 9 févr. 2018
Livres & Vous… Nicolas Sarkozy
La politique est-elle affaire de littérature, de héros et de péripéties ? Jusqu'où la lecture influence-t-elle l'action ? Interpréter un texte, est-ce déjà prendre parti ? De Stendhal à Céline, de Maupassant aux « Jeunes filles en fleur », pour la 1ère fois, l'ancien Président de la République évoque la place déterminante des œuvres dans l'exercice de sa pensée et du pouvoir.
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Les 2 Corée et Moscou : J.O et politique (Christine Ockrent : France Culture)

V. Poutine. Kim Jong-un et Moon Jae-in / Le tigre et l'ours, les mascottes des JO de PyeongChang, en Corée du Sud : l 'équipe féminine de hockey sur glace de Corée, qui compte des joueuses du Nord et du Sud, c'est une première dans l'Histoire des JO.• Crédits : Wikicommons/CIO des JO/M.Moneghetti
Les 2 Corée et Moscou : 
J.O et politique

Y a-t-il une trêve olympique entre la Corée du Sud & la Corée du Nord? Kim Jong-un est-il le gagnant & Vladimir Poutine, le perdant de la partie politique des Jeux Olympiques de PyeongChang? Depuis leur résurrection par Coubertin, les JO mêlent sport, passions nationalistes & enjeux financiers.


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vendredi, février 09, 2018

Brexit : Période de transition "pas acquise" si les "désaccords persistent" (Michel Barnier)


ProductiehuisEU | Ajoutée le 9 févr. 2018
Brexit : Période de transition "pas acquise" si les "désaccords persistent" (Michel Barnier)
La période de transition demandée par le Royaume-Uni après son départ de l'UE "n'est pas acquise" si les désaccords persistent sur plusieurs sujets clés, a averti vendredi le négociateur en chef de l'UE Michel Barnier.

Trois points de divergence. "Compte tenu de ces désaccords, la transition n'est pas acquise", a déclaré Michel Barnier au cours d'une conférence de presse à Bruxelles, après avoir fait état de trois points principaux de divergences entre les négociateurs des deux camps. Le Français, qui s'est rendu lundi à Londres pour y rencontrer son homologue britannique David Davis et la Première ministre Theresa May, a affirmé avoir "des difficultés à comprendre" les divergences de positions "puisque c'est le Royaume-Uni lui-même qui a demandé une période de transition".

Des désaccords "substantiels". La rencontre de lundi a été suivie par un nouveau "round de négociations" à Bruxelles au cours de la semaine, à un niveau technique. "Le Royaume-Uni a insisté pour trouver sur cette période de transition un accord en mars, mais dans le même temps nos interlocuteurs nous ont fait part d'un certain nombre de désaccords que je considère comme substantiels", a expliqué Michel Barnier.

L'UE demande que pendant la période de transition, qu'elle souhaite voir s'étaler de la date du Brexit fin mars 2019 à la fin de l'année 2020, la législation européenne continue de s'appliquer pour le Royaume-Uni. Lequel ne prendrait plus part aux décisions prises désormais à 27.

Quid de la libre-circulation ? Michel Barnier a exposé trois points de divergence. Le premier concerne le droit des citoyens européens. Si Londres reconnaît le principe de la libre-circulation des personnes pendant la période de transition, il ne souhaite pas accorder les mêmes droits aux citoyens arrivés pendant cette période une fois que celle-ci aura expiré et à ceux arrivés avant le Brexit.

En outre, le gouvernement britannique veut continuer de pouvoir s'opposer à de nouvelles règles votées pendant la période transitoire si elles ne lui conviennent pas. Enfin, en matière de justice et d'affaires intérieures, il voudrait continuer de pouvoir avoir son mot à dire sur certains dossiers de l'UE, a expliqué Michel Barnier.
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ProductiehuisEU | Ajoutée le 9 févr. 2018
Brexit : Questions des journalistes pour Michel Barnier (négociateur en chef de l'UE)
Plusieurs désaccords "substantiels" entre l'Union européenne et le Royaume-Uni pourraient remettre en cause la phase de transition réclamée par Londres après le Brexit, a mis en garde vendredi le négociateur en chef de l'UE Michel Barnier.

"Compte tenu de ces désaccords, la transition n'est pas acquise", a averti Michel Barnier au cours d'une conférence de presse à Bruxelles, qui a conclu une nouvelle série de discussions, à un niveau technique, entre les deux camps. 

Le Français, qui était lundi à Londres pour rencontrer son homologue britannique David Davis et la Première ministre Theresa May, a affirmé avoir "des difficultés à comprendre" les divergences de positions "puisque c'est le Royaume-Uni lui-même qui a demandé une période de transition".

"Le Royaume-Uni a insisté pour trouver sur cette période de transition un accord en mars, mais dans le même temps nos interlocuteurs nous ont fait part d'un certain nombre de désaccords que je considère comme substantiels", a expliqué Michel Barnier.

L'UE demande que pendant la période de transition, qu'elle souhaite voir s'étaler de la date du Brexit fin mars 2019 à la fin de l'année 2020, la législation européenne continue de s'appliquer pour le Royaume-Uni. Lequel ne serait plus associé aux décisions prises désormais à 27.

Le négociateur de l'UE a rejeté toute "mauvaise foi" dans les discussions, une accusation portée jeudi par le ministre du Brexit David Davis, lors d'une déclaration d'une virulence inhabituelle. "Il n'y a pas de désir de punition du Royaume-Uni, pas de volonté de punir", a assuré Michel Barnier.

David Davis avait jugé "de mauvaise foi et peu judicieux" un document dévoilé mercredi par l'UE, qui fixe les règles à respecter par Londres pendant cette transition. Ce projet de texte prévoit la possibilité de sanctions, notamment "un mécanisme permettant à l'Union de suspendre certains bénéfices pour le Royaume-Uni découlant de sa participation au marché unique". Invité à réagir, Michel Barnier a refusé de "rentrer dans ce jeu".
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jeudi, février 08, 2018

Joe Rogan Experience #1070 - Jordan Peterson (Vimeo)


(Apologies for occasional bad language.)
Youtube version HERE
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View original 
Jordan Peterson - Cathy Newman interview 
(with French subtitles),
plus further youtube commentary
HERE
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mardi, février 06, 2018

Postmodernism: History and Diagnosis.... (Jordan B. Peterson & Stephen Hicks)


Jordan B Peterson | Ajoutée le 18 août 2017

"On August 17, I (Jordan B. Peterson) spoke with Dr. Stephen Hicks, professor in the philosophy department at Rockford University. Dr. Hicks is the author of the influential and courageous 2004 book Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault, which is perhaps even more relevant and important now than it was when it was published. 

"We spoke in depth about the history of philosophy as it has developed since medieval times, trying to understand and describe the processes that led to the rise of postmodern theory.

"The book itself can be purchased here at Amazon. Dr. Hicks has also made it available in pdf form HERE. A useful review/overview, written by Dr. Steven Sanders, can be found HERE. An audiobook also exists, and can be found HERE.

"Why is this all relevant? Because our culture finds itself currently embroiled in a war of ideas, and those ideas must be understood.

"Links relevant to my other work:
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Fearghas MacFhionnlaigh writes:
You may be interested in reading the following 
by Herman Dooyeweerd:

Humanistic Philosophy after Kant: Hegel, Nietzsche, Darwin, Marx, Hitler
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The Wielding of Power
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Disclosure of an Apostate Culture: The Enlightenment
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Roots of Western Culture: Pagan, Secular, and Christian Options
(Free old edition of book as PDF - 11 Mb)

Roots of Western Culture (Review of new 2012 edition)
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And from Christian Non-dualism website of
J. Glenn Friesen:

Totality
"Because Dooyeweerd’s philosophy begins with the idea of a supratemporal totality, he then needs to show how individual things and events are individuated from out of that totality."
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Dooyeweerd’s Idea of Modalities: The Pivotal 1922 Article
(PDF 33 pages)
"[Dooyeweerd] dismantles Kant's logical categories and instead puts forward the idea of intuited modalities. And Dooyeweerd uses the scholastic idea of ‘meaning-moments' to individuate these modalities from totality."
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lundi, février 05, 2018

THE BREXIT LEAK: anatomy of an economic disaster (Phantom Power, Scotland)


Phantom Power | Ajoutée le 5 févr. 2018

2016. PM David Cameron gives way to the Tory right-wing and calls a referendum on EU membership. The inevitable Remain win will solve Tory party divisions & halt UKIP's rise. Media focus on the leadership battle and fail to examine economic claims. 

Leave wins. Cameron Resigns. Time for the Brexit plan…There is no Brexit plan (and there still is no clear plan 2 years later). 

Scotland faces being forced to leave the EU against its will by a Tory party it didn't vote for who have no EU exit strategy. The Scottish Govt produces a plan for Brexit but it's ignored by UK Govt. UK Govt claim to be working on Brexit impact reports then deny they exist. 

Scottish Govt release analysis showing Brexit could cost Scotland £12 Billion a year. Scottish Tories dismiss the ScotGov's report as 'exaggerated scaremongering’. Buzzfeed publish a leaked UK Govt report predicting Brexit will be a disaster, devastating or catastrophic; validating the Scottish Govt’s analysis. 

Scottish Tories go into hiding (while BBC Scotland looks the other way once again). Labour? The Party is divided on EU. Corbyn backs Hard-Brexit. Labour have failed to capitalise on Tory chaos (see latest polling). 

Brexit will damage Scotland's economy and the devolved powers to do anything about it now face serious threat. Scotland has a choice: independence or potentially decades of subservience to an self-serving, right-wing Tory party hellbent on Brexit at any cost.
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